## What is the DVARP function in Excel?

The **DVARP **function is one of the **Database** functions of Excel.

It **calculates variance** based on the entire population of selected database entries.

We can find this function in the **Database** of insert function Tab

## How to use DVARP function in excel

1. Click on **empty **cell (like F5 )

2. Click on the **fx **icon (or press** shift+F3**)

3. In the **insert function tab** you will see all functions

4. Select **Database** category

5. Select the ** DVARP **function

6. Then select **ok**

7. In the function arguments Tab you will see the **DVARP **function

8. In the **Database section** the range of cells that makes up the list or database. A database is a list of related data (ex: Table1)

9. **Field section** is either the label of the column in double quotation marks or a number that represents the **column’s position** in the list (ex: C1)

10. **Criteria section** is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. The range includes a column label and one cell below the **label for a condition** (ex: Table1)

11. You will see the **result **in formula result section

## Examples of DVARP function in excel

**Example1: **

The DVARP function in Excel is used to calculate the variance of a population based on a specified criterion. Here are ten examples of using the DVARP function in Excel:

- To find the variance of student scores where the score is greater than 70:

```
=DVARP(A2:B15,"Score",A17:B18)
```

Here, A2:B15 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Score” is the field name for the column containing the scores, and A17:B18 contains the criteria range with “Score” in cell A17, “>” in cell B17, and “70” in cell C17.

- To find the variance of employee salaries where the department is “Sales”:

```
=DVARP(A2:C25,"Salary",A27:C28)
```

Here, A2:C25 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Salary” is the field name for the column containing the salaries, and A27:C28 contains the criteria range with “Department” in cell A27, “=” in cell B27, and “Sales” in cell C27.

- To find the variance of product sales where the date is between January 1, 2022 and March 31, 2022:

```
=DVARP(A2:C50,"Sales",A52:C53)
```

Here, A2:C50 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Sales” is the field name for the column containing the sales, and A52:C53 contains the criteria range with “Date” in cell A52, “>=” in cell B52, “1/1/2022” in cell C52, “<=” in cell A53, and “3/31/2022” in cell B53.

- To find the variance of customer ratings where the product category is “Electronics”:

```
=DVARP(A2:D100,"Rating",A102:D103)
```

Here, A2:D100 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Rating” is the field name for the column containing the ratings, and A102:D103 contains the criteria range with “Category” in cell A102, “=” in cell B102, and “Electronics” in cell C102.

- To find the variance of monthly expenses where the expense type is “Utilities”:

```
=DVARP(A2:B36,"Expenses",A38:B39)
```

Here, A2:B36 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Expenses” is the field name for the column containing the expenses, and A38:B39 contains the criteria range with “Expense Type” in cell A38, “=” in cell B38, and “Utilities” in cell C38.

- To find the variance of stock prices where the closing price is greater than the opening price:

```
=DVARP(A2:C50,"Price",A52:C53)
```

Here, A2:C50 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Price” is the field name for the column containing the prices, and A52:C53 contains the criteria range with “Closing Price” in cell A52, “>” in cell B52, “Opening Price” in cell C52, and “<>” in cell A53.

- To find the variance of customer satisfaction ratings where the feedback date is in the last 30 days:

```
=DVARP(A2:D100,"Satisfaction",A102:D103)
```

Here, A2:D100 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Satisfaction” is the field name for the column containing the satisfaction ratings, and A102:D103 contains the criteria range with “Feedback Date” in cell A102, “>=” in cell B102, and “=TODAY()-30” in cell C102.

- To find the variance of employee ages where the job title is “Manager”:

```
=DVARP(A2:C25,"Age",A27:C28)
```

Here, A2:C25 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Age” is the field name for the column containing the ages, and A27:C28 contains the criteria range with “Job Title” in cell A27, “=” in cell B27, and “Manager” in cell C27.

- To find the variance of project completion times where the project type is “Software Development”:

```
=DVARP(A2:B20,"Completion Time",A22:B23)
```

Here, A2:B20 represents the range of cells containing the data, “Completion Time” is the field name for the column containing the completion times, and A22:B23 contains the criteria range with “Project Type” in cell A22, “=” in cell B22, and “Software Development” in cell C22.

**Example2: **

### calculate the variance of student height with DVARP function

**Example3:**

### calculate the variance of student age with DVARP function

**Example 4:**

### Python code for **DVAR**P function

**P****DVAR**Name | Age | Height | Weight |

Olivia | 25 | 210 | 180 |

Noah | 25 | 205 | 235 |

Oliver | 27 | 195 | 205 |

Elijah | 22 | 198 | 185 |

James | 29 | 199 | 231 |

William | 29 | 201 | 240 |

Benjamin | 21 | 202 | 235 |

Lucas | 25 | 200 | 238 |

Henry | 22 | 204 | 190 |

```
import pandas as pd
df=pd.read_csv(‘example.csv’)
Vardf = df.var(axis=0, numeric_only= True)
print (Vardf)
```

## Excel’s DVARP Function: What It Is and How It Works

DVARP is an Excel function that stands for “Database Variable with Population.” It is used to calculate the variance of a set of data points in a database, where the entire population is known. The function calculates variance using the formula:

(Variance) = Sum of [(Data Point – Mean)^2] / (Population Size)

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam and we want to find the variance of the scores. We can use the DVARP function to do this easily. Let’s say the scores are in cells A2 through A11, and we know that the entire class consists of 50 students. We can use the following formula:

=DVARP(A2:A11,”Score”,A13:A14)

Here, “Score” is the field name for the test score column, and A13:A14 is where we specify the criteria for our data. In this case, we don’t have any specific criteria, so we leave these cells blank.

## Understanding the Difference Between DVARP and DVAR Functions in Excel

The DVARP function calculates the variance of a population, whereas the DVAR function calculates the variance of a sample. The main difference between the two functions is that the DVARP function assumes that you have the entire population of data, while the DVAR function assumes that you only have a sample of the population.

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam, but we only know the scores for these 10 students and not the entire class. We can use the DVAR function to find the sample variance:

=DVAR(A2:A11,”Score”,A13:A14)

Note that the only difference from the DVARP function is the use of “DVAR” instead of “DVARP”.

## An Overview of the Arguments of Excel’s DVARP Function

The DVARP function takes three arguments:

- Database: This is the range of cells that contain your data.
- Field: This is the column header or field name that you want to calculate the variance for.
- Criteria: This is an optional range of cells that contain criteria to be met in order for a data point to be included in the calculation. If you don’t have any specific criteria, you can leave this argument blank.

## Using the DVARP Function in Formulas to Analyze Data in Excel

Suppose we have a database of sales records for a company and we want to find the variance of the sales for a particular product. We can use the DVARP function to do this easily. Let’s say the sales data is in cells A2 through C100, where column A contains the product name, column B contains the sale amount, and column C contains the date of the sale.

We want to find the variance of the sales for “Product A”. We can use the following formula:

=DVARP(A2:C100,”Sale Amount”,A1:C2)

Here, “Sale Amount” is the field name for the sale amount column, and we specify the criteria to be met in cells A1:C2. In this case, we want to include only sales for “Product A”, so we enter “Product A” in cell A2 and leave cell B2 blank.

By using the DVARP function, we can easily analyze data and gain insights into our business operations.

## Interpreting the Results of the DVARP Function in Excel

The result of a DVARP function is the variance of the selected data set. The variance is a statistical measure that tells us how much the data points in a set vary from the average value. A higher variance means that the data points are more spread out, while a lower variance means that they are closer together.

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam and we want to find the variance of the scores using DVARP. Let’s say the scores are in cells A2 through A11, and we know that the entire class consists of 50 students. If we use the formula:

=DVARP(A2:A11,”Score”,A13:A14)

and get a result of 12.25, we can interpret this as follows: the average score of the 10 students is 75 (assuming a maximum score of 100), and the variance of the scores is 12.25, indicating that the scores in the group are somewhat spread out from the average.

## How DVARP Treats Blank or Empty Cells in Excel

The DVARP function treats blank or empty cells as zeroes. This means that if a cell in the range being analyzed is blank or contains no value, it will be treated as if it had a value of zero.

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam and we want to find the variance of the scores using DVARP. Let’s say one of the scores is missing and the cells A2 through A11 contain the remaining scores. If we use the formula:

=DVARP(A2:A11,”Score”,A13:A14)

the missing score will be treated as if it were zero and included in the calculation. Therefore, the result may not accurately represent the true variance of the scores if there are many blank or missing cells.

## Case Sensitivity and the DVARP Function in Excel

The DVARP function in Excel is case-insensitive. This means that uppercase and lowercase letters are treated as the same when specifying the field or column name to calculate the variance for.

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam and we want to find the variance of the scores using DVARP. Let’s say the scores are in cells A2 through A11, and the column header in cell A1 is “Score”. If we use the formula:

=DVARP(A2:A11,”score”,A13:A14)

Excel will still recognize “Score” as the correct field name and calculate the variance accordingly.

## Incorporating the DVARP Function into Larger Analyses in Excel

The DVARP function can be incorporated into larger analyses in Excel, such as creating charts or pivot tables to visualize data trends. By calculating the variance of a data set using DVARP, we can gain insights into how much the data points vary from the average value and identify patterns or anomalies in the data.

For example, suppose we have a database of sales records for a company and we want to analyze the variance in sales for different products over time. We can use the DVARP function to calculate the variance of sales for each product and incorporate this data into a pivot table or chart to visualize trends and make informed business decisions.

## Types of Data That Can Be Analyzed Using Excel’s DVARP Function

The DVARP function in Excel can be used to analyze a variety of data types, including numerical data, financial data, and scientific data. It is particularly useful for analyzing large data sets where the entire population is known.

For example, suppose we have a database of employee salaries at a company and we want to find the variance of salaries for a particular department. We can use the DVARP function to do this easily. Let’s say the salary data is in cells A2 through C100, where column A contains the employee name, column B contains the salary amount, and column C contains the department name. We want to find the variance of salaries for the “Sales” department. We can use the following formula:

=DVARP(A2:C100,”Salary”,C1:C2)

Here, “Salary” is the field name for the salary column, and we specify the criteria to be met in cells C1:C2. In this case, we want to include only employees in the “Sales” department, so we enter “Sales” in cell C2 and leave cell C1 blank.

## Combining Statistical Functions with the DVARP Function in Excel

Statistical functions in Excel can be combined with the DVARP function to perform more complex analyses and gain deeper insights into data trends. Some common statistical functions that can be combined with DVARP include AVERAGE, MAX, and MIN.

For example, suppose we have a database of daily stock prices for a company and we want to find the variance of the stock prices over a certain period of time. We can use the DVARP function in combination with other statistical functions to get a more complete picture of the data. Let’s say the stock price data is in cells A2 through B100, where column A contains the date and column B contains the stock price. We want to find the variance of the stock prices for the month of January. We can use the following formula:

=DVARP(B2:B100,”Stock Price”,A2:A100,”>=1/1/2023″, “<=1/31/2023”)

Here, “Stock Price” is the field name for the stock price column, and we specify the criteria to be met in cells A2:A100. In this case, we want to include only stock prices that fall between January 1, 2023 and January 31, 2023. We can combine this with the AVERAGE function to find the average stock price for the month or the MAX and MIN functions to find the highest and lowest prices.

## Calculating Sample Variance with the DVARP Function in Excel

As previously mentioned, the DVARP function calculates the variance of a population, not a sample. However, it is possible to use the function to calculate the sample variance by adjusting the formula slightly.

For example, suppose we have a list of 10 students’ test scores on an exam, but we only know the scores for these 10 students and not the entire class. We can use the following formula to find the sample variance:

=(COUNT(A2:A11)/(COUNT(A2:A11)-1))*DVARP(A2:A11,”Score”,A13:A14)

Note that we multiply the result of the DVARP function by (COUNT(A2:A11)/(COUNT(A2:A11)-1)) to adjust for the fact that we are calculating the variance of a sample rather than a population.

## Limitations and Drawbacks of the DVARP Function in Excel

One limitation of the DVARP function in Excel is that it assumes that the data being analyzed follows a normal distribution. If the data does not follow a normal distribution, the variance calculated by the function may not be accurate.

Another drawback of the DVARP function is that it can be impacted by outliers or extreme values in the data. These values can skew the variance and make it less representative of the overall data set.

For example, suppose we have a database of employee salaries at a company and one employee’s salary is significantly higher than all the others. This outlier could significantly impact the variance calculated by the DVARP function and make it less useful for analyzing the general trend of salaries within the company.

## Troubleshooting Errors with the DVARP Function in Excel

The DVARP function in Excel is a powerful tool for calculating the variance of a sample based on a population. However, like any function, it’s important to be aware of common errors that can occur while using it.

- Incorrect Input Parameters One of the most common errors that can occur when using the DVARP function is incorrect input parameters. This can happen if you accidentally select the wrong range of cells for the database or field arguments, or if you enter an invalid data type.

Example: Suppose you have a list of employees’ salaries and you want to calculate the variance for a specific department. If you accidentally select the wrong column label for the field argument, the formula will return an error. To fix this, double-check your input parameters and ensure that they match the data in your database.

- Invalid Criteria Range The criteria argument in the DVARP function is optional, but it can be useful for filtering data before performing calculations. However, if you specify an invalid criteria range, Excel may return an error.

Example: Suppose you have a list of customer orders and you want to calculate the variance for a specific product. If you mistype the criteria range or enter an invalid value, Excel will return an error. To troubleshoot this issue, double-check your criteria range and ensure that it contains valid values.

- Non-Numeric Data Types The DVARP function is designed to work with numeric data types, such as integers and decimal numbers. If you try to use non-numeric data types in the field argument, Excel will return an error.

Example: Suppose you have a list of products and their associated prices, and you want to calculate the variance of the prices. If you accidentally include a text string in the field argument, Excel will return an error. To fix this, ensure that the field argument contains only numeric values.

In summary, by being aware of these common errors, you can troubleshoot issues with the DVARP function in Excel and ensure that your formulas are accurate and reliable.

## Making Informed Decisions with the Help of Excel’s DVARP Function

Excel’s DVARP function can be a useful tool for gaining insights into your data and making informed decisions. Here are some ways you can use this function to make better decisions:

- Identify Trends and Patterns By using the DVARP function, you can quickly determine if there are any significant trends or patterns in your data. This can help you identify areas where your business is performing well and areas that may need improvement.

Example: Suppose you have a database of customer orders and you want to analyze the variance of order amounts over time. By using the DVARP function, you can quickly identify any trends or patterns in order amounts, such as an increase or decrease in sales over a specific period.

- Evaluate Risk The DVARP function can also be used to evaluate risk in your business. By understanding the variability of your data, you can identify potential risks and take steps to mitigate them.

Example: Suppose you run a business that sells products online, and you want to evaluate the risk associated with shipping delays. By analyzing the variance in delivery times, you can identify any potential issues and take steps to minimize the risk of delays.

- Monitor Performance The DVARP function can also be used to monitor the performance of your business over time. By comparing the variance of key metrics, you can identify changes in your business and adjust your strategy accordingly.

Example: Suppose you run a marketing campaign and want to track its effectiveness. By analyzing the variance in website traffic and conversion rates before and after the campaign, you can evaluate its impact and adjust your marketing strategy as needed.

In summary, by using Excel’s DVARP function, you can gain valuable insights into your data and make informed decisions about your business. Whether you’re identifying trends, evaluating risk, or monitoring performance, this function can help you make better decisions and achieve your goals.

## Best Practices for Using the DVARP Function in Excel

Excel’s DVARP function is a powerful tool for calculating the variance of a sample based on a population. Here are some best practices to keep in mind when using this function:

- Ensure Proper Data Formatting and Organization To avoid calculation errors, it’s important to ensure that your data is properly formatted and organized. This includes using consistent date/time formats, ensuring that all cells contain valid data types, and organizing your data into clear rows and columns.

Example: Suppose you have a database of customer orders and you want to calculate the variance of order amounts. By ensuring that all cells in the database are properly formatted as numbers and that the order amount column is clearly labeled, you can reduce the risk of calculation errors.

- Use Descriptive Labels for Rows and Columns Using descriptive labels for rows and columns can make your formulas easier to understand and maintain. This can also help you quickly identify the data you need to use in your DVARP function.

Example: Suppose you have a database of employee salaries and you want to calculate the variance for a specific department. By labeling the rows with department names and the columns with salary amounts, you can easily identify the data you need to use in your formula.

- Double-Check Criteria Specifications The criteria argument in the DVARP function is optional but can be useful for filtering data before performing calculations. However, it’s important to double-check that your criteria specifications are correct to obtain accurate results.

Example: Suppose you have a database of customer orders and you want to calculate the variance of order amounts for a specific product category. By using the criteria argument to specify the product category, you can filter out irrelevant data and obtain more accurate results.

In summary, by following these best practices, you can use the DVARP function in Excel more effectively and minimize the risk of calculation errors.